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References and Further Reading 1. The word "knowledge" and its cognates are used in a variety of ways.
One common use of the word "know" is as an expression of psychological conviction. For instance, we might hear someone say, "I just knew it wouldn't rain, but then it did. This point is discussed at greater length in section 2b below. Even if we restrict ourselves to factive usages, there are still multiple senses of "knowledge," and so we need to distinguish between them.
One kind of knowledge is procedural knowledge, sometimes called competence or "know-how;" for example, one can know how to ride a bicycle, or one can know how to drive from Washington, D.
Another kind of knowledge is acquaintance knowledge or familiarity; for instance, one can know the department chairperson, or one can know Philadelphia.
Epistemologists typically do not focus on procedural or acquaintance knowledge, however, instead preferring to focus on propositional knowledge. Propositional knowledge, then, can be called knowledge-that; statements of propositional knowledge or the lack thereof are properly expressed using "that"-clauses, such as "He knows that Houston is in Texas," or "She does not know that the square root of 81 is 9.
Propositional knowledge, obviously, encompasses knowledge about a wide range of matters: Any truth might, in principle, be knowable, although there might be unknowable truths. One goal of epistemology is to determine the criteria for knowledge so that we can know what can or Symposium plato essay questions be known, in other words, the study of epistemology fundamentally includes the study of meta-epistemology what we can know about knowledge itself.
We can also distinguish between different types of propositional knowledge, based on the source of that knowledge. Non-empirical or a priori knowledge is possible independently of, or prior to, any experience, and requires only the use of reason; examples include knowledge of logical truths such as the law of non-contradiction, as well as knowledge of abstract claims such as ethical claims or claims about various conceptual matters.
Empirical or a posteriori knowledge is possible only subsequent, or posterior, to certain sense experiences in addition to the use of reason ; examples include knowledge of the color or shape of a physical object or knowledge of geographical locations.
Some philosophers, called rationalists, believe that all knowledge is ultimately grounded upon reason; others, called empiricists, believe that all knowledge is ultimately grounded upon experience. A thorough epistemology should, of course, address all kinds of knowledge, although there might be different standards for a priori and a posteriori knowledge.
We can also distinguish between individual knowledge and collective knowledge. Social epistemology is the subfield of epistemology that addresses the way that groups, institutions, or other collective bodies might come to acquire knowledge. The Nature of Propositional Knowledge Having narrowed our focus to propositional knowledge, we must ask ourselves what, exactly, constitutes knowledge.
What does it mean for someone to know something? What is the difference between someone who knows something and someone else who does not know it, or between something one knows and something one does not know? Since the scope of knowledge is so broad, we need a general characterization of knowledge, one which is applicable to any kind of proposition whatsoever.
Epistemologists have usually undertaken this task by seeking a correct and complete analysis of the concept of knowledge, in other words a set of individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions which determine whether someone knows something.
Belief Let us begin with the observation that knowledge is a mental state; that is, knowledge exists in one's mind, and unthinking things cannot know anything. Further, knowledge is a specific kind of mental state. While "that"-clauses can also be used to describe desires and intentions, these cannot constitute knowledge.
Rather, knowledge is a kind of belief. If one has no beliefs about a particular matter, one cannot have knowledge about it. For instance, suppose that I desire that I be given a raise in salary, and that I intend to do whatever I can to earn one. Suppose further that I am doubtful as to whether I will indeed be given a raise, due to the intricacies of the university's budget and such.
Given that I do not believe that I will be given a raise, I cannot be said to know that I will. Only if I am inclined to believe something can I come to know it.
Similarly, thoughts that an individual has never entertained are not among his beliefs, and thus cannot be included in his body of knowledge. Some beliefs, those which the individual is actively entertaining, are called occurrent beliefs.
The majority of an individual's beliefs are non-occurrent; these are beliefs that the individual has in the background but is not entertaining at a particular time. Correspondingly, most of our knowledge is non-occurrent, or background, knowledge; only a small amount of one's knowledge is ever actively on one's mind.
Truth Knowledge, then, requires belief. Of course, not all beliefs constitute knowledge.Symposium by Plato Questions and Answers. Essays for Symposium by Plato.
Symposium essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Symposium by Plato. The Impossibility of Evil . Plato's Symposium Essay Plato's Symposium In the Symposium, Plato gives us one of the most close-up and personal pictures of Socrates we have.
Socrates himself never wrote a line that we know of; all that we know of him (his personality, his views, his biography) we get through Plato's ey es and pen. The Symposium; Study Questions; The Symposium by: Plato Summary.
Overall Summary; Context; Overall Analysis and Themes One is that these framing devices serve to show the great level of general interest in the symposium.
Years after the fact, people are still talking about it and wanting to hear about it. Plato wants to make clear that. Forms of Love in Plato's Symposium - Love, in classical Greek literature, is commonly considered as a prominent theme.
Love, in present days, always appears in the categories of books, movies or music, etc. Interpreted differently by different people, Love turns into a multi-faceted being. The Phaedrus (/ ˈ f iː d r ə s /; Ancient Greek: Φαῖδρος, lit. 'Phaidros'), written by Plato, is a dialogue between Plato's protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several arteensevilla.com Phaedrus was presumably composed around BC, about the same time as Plato's Republic and Symposium.
Although ostensibly about the topic of love, the discussion in the dialogue. Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.