This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD is an umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and refractory non-reversible asthma. This disease is characterized by increasing breathlessness. COPD is a progressive and currently incurable disease, but with the right diagnosis and treatment, there are many things you can do to manage your COPD and breathe better.
People can live for many years with COPD and enjoy life. In Emphysema the tiny, delicate air sacs alveoli in your lungs are damaged. The walls of the damaged air sacs become stretched out and your lungs actually get bigger, making it harder to move your air in and out.
Old air gets trapped inside the alveoli so there is little or no room for new air to go. In emphysema it is harder to get oxygen in and carbon dioxide the waste product of your breathing out. Chronic bronchitis is an inflammation of the breathing tubes bronchial airways inside your lungs.
Tiny hair-like structures cilia line your airways and sweep mucus up, keeping your airways clean. This can make your airways swollen and clogged. These changes limit airflow in and out of your lungs, making it hard to breathe.
Refractory non-reversible asthma is a type of asthma that does not respond to usual asthma medications. In an asthma attack, bronchial airways tighten up and swell.
Medications can usually reverse this, opening up the airways and returning them to how they were before the asthma attack. In refractory asthma, medications cannot reverse the tightening and swelling of the airways.
COPD can progress for years without noticeable shortness of breath. Ask your healthcare provider about ordering a spirometry test. Symptoms of COPD can be different for each person, but common symptoms are: Each type may affect how well different treatments work, how your symptoms affect your everyday life, and how they progress.
If you have another health condition in addition to COPD co-morbiditysuch as high blood pressure, heart disease, heartburn, depression, or diabetes, this can also affect your COPD and how it is managed.
Here are some things that can help determine your particular type of COPD. Taking these things into consideration can be useful in addition to your spirometry numbers and other factors.
Do you have a cough?Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a group of lung diseases that cause difficulty breathing. Get info on COPD symptoms and causes. Profile Menu.
Your Account. Your Account. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to two long-term lung diseases -- chronic bronchitis and emphysema-- that often occur together. COPD makes it hard for you to breathe. Tubes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the name used to describe a number of conditions including emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
Emphysema affects the air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs, and chronic bronchitis affects your airways (bronchi). COPD and the Environment. Indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure has been associated with COPD. The most prominent indoor exposure is from tobacco smoke but the use of biomass fuels inside without proper ventilation, such as wood burning stoves, is a major exposure worldwide.
COPD is a disease that limits airflow to the lungs. “Generally, people start to notice it in their 50s and beyond,” says Emma Hilton, global medical affairs leader, COPD, GSK.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow. The main symptoms include shortness of breath and cough with sputum production. COPD is a progressive disease, meaning it typically worsens over time.