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Workers most likely to experience inhalation or skin exposures to methanol include bookbinders, bronzers, dyers, foundry workers, gilders, hatmakers, ink makers, laboratory technicians, painters, photoengravers, and chemical manufacturers.
Cases Study Jetbule Essay Sample. This report is part of the Department of Strategy Management by objectives. For Education and Research on JetBlue’s Airways which is mainly serves destinations in the United States, along with flights to the Caribbean, The Bahamas, Bermuda, Barbados, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Mexico and Puerto Rico. The appraisal of chances and menaces is the foundation upon which contrivers develop schemes. The Caterpillar instance illustrates some of the jobs associated with the designation of chances and menaces. particularly in a state of affairs where old successes are noteworthy. Cases Study Jetbule Essay Sample. This report is part of the Department of Strategy Management by objectives. For Education and Research on JetBlue’s Airways which is mainly serves destinations in the United States, along with flights to the Caribbean, The Bahamas, Bermuda, Barbados, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Mexico and Puerto Rico.
In addition, administrative aides or others using mimeograph machines may be exposed to methanol, as well as workers at refineries, fuel distribution centers, and service stations, if they handle methanol-containing fuels. Householders, hobbyists, and motorists using methanol-containing products can be at risk for inhalation exposure; therefore, precautions must be taken to avoid using these products in poorly ventilated spaces.
In addition, prolonged skin contact with methanol can produce systemic effects—a painter developed blindness after working in methanol-soaked clothes, and an 8-month-old child with a methanol-soaked pad placed on his chest developed signs of methanol toxicity.
Historically, the largest number of serious methanol exposures have occurred by ingestion. Methanol poisoning has been caused by materials such as shellac thinner, duplicator fluid, and denatured alcohol that have been drunk directly or have been used to adulterate beverages.
In addition, about 35, Cases study jetbule ingestions are reported annually in the United States, most of which occur from fuel siphoning. Siphoning accidents Cases study jetbule significantly increase the number of methanol ingestions if the use of methanol-containing automotive fuels becomes widespread.
One step in the metabolic detoxification of methanol is a folic acid-dependent process. Consequently, susceptibility to methanol toxicity may be higher among folate-deficient persons.
Folate deficiency can occur not only in persons consuming inadequate diets, but also in those with intestinal malabsorption e. Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Integrating a Missing Element into Medical Education. The National Academies Press. During the investigation, you request a listing of the contents on the label of the duplicating fluid used by the patient.
You also learn that the patient drank a small amount of the duplicating fluid about 5 milliliters [mL] on his second day of working at the senior center. Dermal absorption may occur if skin is abraded or methanol exposure is prolonged.
There is evidence that methanol absorption through the skin is enhanced in gasoline-methanol mixtures. Once absorbed, methanol is distributed with total body water.
Metabolism of methanol is a three-step process taking place chiefly in the liver. In the next step Figure 1Step 2formaldehyde is oxidized by aldehyde dehydrogenase to formic acid or formate, depending upon pH. Since step 2 is rapid, little formaldehyde accumulates in the serum.
Formic acid, a metabolite of formaldehyde, contributes to the development of metabolic acidosis both directly i.
In Step 3, formic acid is detoxified to carbon dioxide and water. A small amount of the metabolic products is excreted in the urine as formate, but most is exhaled as carbon dioxide.
Methanol elimination patterns are dose-dependent, with elimination half-lives ranging from 3 hours in volunteers who ingested small amounts of methanol to 30 hours in persons who overdosed.
Methanol metabolism to toxic intermediates—formaldehyde and formic acid formate. Alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the first step of methanol metabolism, has an approximately ninefold greater affinity for ethanol than for methanol.
Administration of ethanol blocks the oxidation of methanol, preventing the lethal synthesis of formaldehyde and formic acid and increasing the amount of methanol that is eliminated unchanged now approximately equal amounts in urine and exhaled breath.
Administration of folic acid and its analogues, which affect Step 3, enhances the conversion of toxic formic acid to carbon dioxide and water Figure 1. Methanol shares with many other hydrocarbon solvents the ability to produce reversible sensory irritation, headache, nausea, and narcosis at airborne levels below those producing specific organ system pathology.
Headaches were a frequent complaint in one study of office workers in the vicinity of duplicating machines where airborne methanol levels were in the range of to parts per million ppm. Workers reported that the symptoms improved when they were away from the workplace.
Most methanol-related metabolic and ophthalmologic alterations have been associated with exposure through ingestion. Metabolic Effects After a characteristic latent period of 6 to 30 hours, severe metabolic acidosis may occur in victims of methanol poisoning.
The acidosis is due to formic acid, and less often, lactic acid. Ophthalmologic and Neurologic Effects Experimental evidence suggests that formate is responsible for optic nerve damage in methanol overexposure.
In fatal cases, the optic nerve shows central necrosis in the distal orbital portion with the central optic tracts intact.
In nonfatal cases, visual function can normalize completely after treatment, although central and peripheral scotomata or complete blindness may persist, depending on several variables.See our expertise in action, read through several case studies highlighting some of the solutions we have developed with our customers.
Jetblue Case Study. Introduction and industry analysis JetBlue Airway Corporation is an American low-cost airline and it was one of a few U.S.
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Jetblue Case Study JetBlue is a low-cost domestic airline in the United States that utilizes a combination of low-cost and value-added differentiation as its market strategy.
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Strategic Management Case Studies (selected titles). This study is portion of the Department of Strategy Management by aims.
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