This book argues that the striking resemblances in Spanish and Puritan discourses of colonization as "exorcism" and as spiritual gardening point to a common Atlantic history. These resemblances suggest that we are better off if we simply consider the Puritan colonization of New England as a continuation of Iberian models rather than a radically different colonizing experience. The book demonstrates that a wider Pan-American perspective can upset the most cherished national narratives of the United States, for it maintains that the Puritan colonization of New England was as much a chivalric, crusading act of Reconquista against the Devil as was the Spanish conquest.
James was a Calvinist, and he had once signed the Negative Confession of favouring the Puritan position. In the Millenary Petition which claimed 1, signatures presented Puritan grievances to the king, and in the Hampton Court Conference was held to deal with them. The petitioners were sadly in error in their estimate of James, who had learned by personal experience to resent Presbyterian clericalism.
Conformity in ecclesiastical matters was imposed in areas where nonconformity had survived under Elizabeth. For many Puritan groups compromise was unacceptable anyway, and in a congregation from Scrooby, England, fled to Holland and then migrated on the Mayflower to establish the Plymouth Colony on the shore of Cape Cod Bay in North America in Of those who remained in England, a number of clergy were deprived of their positions, but others took evasive action and got by with minimal conformity.
Members of Parliament supported the Nonconformists and argued that the canons of had not been ratified by Parliament and therefore did not have the force of law.
Events under Charles I Despite the presence of controversy, Puritan and non-Puritan Protestants under Elizabeth and James had been united by adherence to a broadly Calvinistic theology of grace.
Even as late as the English delegation to the Synod of Dort supported the strongly Calvinistic decisions of that body. Under Charles Ihowever, this consensus broke down, creating yet another rift in the Church of England. Anti-Puritanism in matters of liturgy and organization became linked with anti-Calvinism in theology.
The leaders of the anti-Puritan and anti-Calvinist party, notably Richard Montaguwhose New Gagg for an Old Goose first linked Calvinism with the abusive term Puritan, drew upon the development of Arminianism in Holland.
English Arminians added to this an increased reverence for the sacraments and liturgical ceremony. Richard Neile, the bishop of Durham, was the first significant patron of Arminians among the hierarchy, but by the time William Laud was appointed bishop of London inhe was the acknowledged leader of the anti-Puritan party.
London was regarded as the stronghold of Puritanism, and a policy of thorough anti-Puritanism was begun there. Laud, who became archbishop of Canterbury inwas clearly a favourite of Charles. He promoted Arminians to influential positions in the church and subtly encouraged the propagation of Arminian theology.
His fortunes turned, however, when he attempted to introduce into the Church of Scotland a liturgy comparable to the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. Giles at Edinburgh, a riot broke out leading to a popular uprising that restored Presbyterianism in Scotland.
To wage war Charles needed to raise revenue, but the only institution that could approve new taxes was Parliament, which had feuded with Charles in the s and was dissolved by him in In April the Short Parliament met but was quickly dissolved by Charles because its members wanted to discuss a list of grievances before approving funds for the war.
Charles proceeded against the Scots but, his armies were no match for Scottish forces. In he was faced with an army of occupation in northern England demanding money as a part of its settlement. Short of funds, Charles was forced to call Parliament again, and this time he would be forced to deal with it.
Religion played perhaps the key role in the parliamentary elections, and Calvinists came to dominate the House of Commons. Puritans, increasingly alienated from the ecclesiastical and civil hierarchy since the mids, saw an opportunity to turn the Church of England from Arminianism and to carry out reforms that had been held in check since the Elizabethan Settlement.
Arminianism in theology, liturgy, and government was linked in the popular mind with Catholicism, as fears of a Spanish conspiracy to undermine Protestant England became widespread.
The first act of the Long Parliament —53as it came to be called, was to set aside November 17,as a day of fasting and prayer.
Cornelius Burges and Stephen Marshall were appointed to preach that day to members of Parliament. This alliance held despite increasing pressure on Charles to cooperate with Parliament on economic and military matters. The resulting civil war between the forces of the king and those of Parliament was hardly just a religious struggle between Arminians and Calvinists, but conflict over religion played an undeniably large role in bringing about the Puritan Revolution.
As Protestantism split, so did English society. A majority of the Puritan clergy of England probably would have accepted a modified episcopal church government. Because both groups had support in Parliament, the reform of church government and discipline was frustrated.
Dissent within the assembly was negligible compared with dissent outside it. Pamphlets by John MiltonRoger Williamsand other Puritans pleaded for greater freedom of the press and of religion. Such dissent was supported by the New Model Armya Parliamentarian force of 22, men led by Sir Thomas Fairfax —71 as commander in chief and Oliver Cromwell — as second in command.
Late in the victors feared that the Westminster Assembly and Parliament would reach a compromise with the defeated Charles that would destroy their gains for Puritanism.
In December Parliament was purged of members unsatisfactory to the army, and in January King Charles was tried and executed. The Independent clergyman John Owen guided the religious settlement under Cromwell.
Such was the basis for a pluralistic religious settlement in England under the Commonwealth in which parish churches were led by men of Presbyterian, Independent, Baptistor other opinions. Jews were permitted to live in England, but Roman Catholics and Unitarians were not allowed to hold religious views publicly.
Voluntary associations of churches were formed, such as the Worcestershire Association, to keep up a semblance of order among churches and pastors of differing persuasions.The Puritan Vision From their beginnings in England to their settlement in the New World, the Puritans endured many setbacks and disasters.
They suffered persecution in England. Many of the Puritans were put in jail, to be whipped by the guards. Their noses would be slit and their ears lopp.
I. The Puritan New World vision in the longer schemes of things. English Puritans can be divided into several groups. Most of the Puritans remained in England. They accepted the principle of Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth, with the Separatists (no affiliation .
The history of the Puritans has not ended. Puritan history is, in fact, an ongoing saga. Puritan history may come to a grand climax during the coming years. All Americans should know this earlier history of the Puritans in England.
The Puritan vision went far beyond tradition and race and took them beyond the 'dreams of their fathers'. Like the Pilgrims, the Puritans were English Protestants who believed that the reforms of the Church of England did not go far enough.
In their view, the liturgy was still too Catholic. Puritan Literature in America - Puritan Literature in America By Ms. Dolan Period 1 August 12, Puritans Definition: Group of Protestants who wanted to purify the Church of England.
| PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view. Puritanism: Puritanism, a The first full manifestation of modern nationalism occurred in 17th-century England, in the Puritan revolution. England had become the leading nation in scientific spirit, in commercial enterprise, in political thought and activity.
Puritan; Digital History - The Puritans; Britannica Websites. Articles from.