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Introduction Criminologythe scientific study of criminals and criminal behavior. Criminologists attempt to build theories that explain why crimes occur and test those theories by observing behavior. Development of Criminology The discipline of criminology has evolved in three phases, beginning in the 18th century.
Although crime and criminals have been around for as long as societies have existed, the systematic study of these phenomena did not begin until the late s.
When scholars first distinguished crime from sin, they made possible explanations of criminal behavior that were not theological religious. This, in turn, allowed for the dispassionate, scientific study of why crime occurs.
The development of this study is now known as the era of classical criminology. The second phase, which began in the 19th century, is referred to as modern criminology. During this era, criminology distinguished itself as a subspecialty within the emerging disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics.
Scholars formed criminological societies and founded criminology journals. Criminologists conducted empirical tests observations or experiments of their theories, rather than relying solely on speculation, and consequently developed a wide range of theories. The third phase, beginning in the second half of the 20th century, may best be called independent criminology.
During this period, criminology began to assert its independence from the traditional disciplines that spawned it.
In Western Europe, the United States, and Canada, criminologists expanded their professional associations and published an increasing number of journals. A number of universities developed graduate programs in criminology.
Criminological theories have become more multidisciplinary spanning various fields of study because independent criminologists seek to understand crime itself rather than study crime as one aspect of an overall sociological or psychological theory. Classical Criminology The issues of crime and punishment have aroused interest and discussion since ancient times.
Scriptures dating from the 10th century BC prohibit certain acts and provide consequences for those who disobey these rules. In the 5th century BC Greek historian Thucydides wrote about the usefulness of the death penalty.
With the development of Christianity in the 1st century AD, questions of crime and punishment were almost always discussed in religious terms. Christian thought tended to emphasize personal responsibility for wrongdoing; requiring penitence remorse by the criminal in exchange for salvation, or forgiveness, by God.
Although punishment practices during the Middle Ages 5th century to 15th century were often brutal, the church generally had a moderating influence.
Christian philosophers expressed in their writings that the legitimate purpose of punishment was to reform and salvage the erring sinner. It was not until the 18th century, however, that penal policy and thereby the understanding of crime was subject to systematic consideration.
Authors began to condemn the frequent use of torture and the widespread imposition of capital punishment the death penalty and other brutal and degrading sanctions penalties.CHAPTER 2 THEORIES OF ORGANIZED CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR 61 commission exists whose function is to arbitrate disputes between families and assign territory (discussed later in the chapter).
Ethnicity is a key to the alien conspiracy theory of the organized crime. Discussing these topics from the point of view of green criminological theory, sociology, law enforcement, community wellbeing, environmental activism and victimology, this book will be of great interest to all those concerned about crime and the environment.
Emile Durkheim developed the first modern strain theory of crime and deviance, but Merton’s classic strain theory and its offshoots came to dominate criminology during the middle part of the 20th century.
Positivist Criminology: the search for a criminal type? Dan Ellingworth Understanding Criminology Friday, 24 October –Really a theory of the state, not of the actor criminological research, and rehabilitation After Reading Week: Sociology arrives!
Durkheim and Anomie. of discourse prior to the start of this century. Nevertheless, today, some North American Page 7 of 10 Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory: Left Realism Criminology in-depth semi-structured interviews.
For example, at the start of this millennium. Design/methodology/approach – After reviewing prior literature, this paper outlines four general criminological theories that can explain academic fraud.
Findings – While criminological theory has been applied to some studies of academic dishonesty, research misconduct has rarely been examined within a broader theoretical context.